Least squares solvers


The :lsqr solver solves the linear system with $l^2$ regularisation:

\[\mathbf{c} = \text{arg} \min_\mathbf{c} \| \mathbf{y} - \Psi \mathbf{c} \|^2 + \lambda^2 \| \mathbf{c} \|^2\]

The solver dictionary should have the following arguments:

solver = Dict(
        "solver" => :lsqr,
        "lsqr_damp" => 5e-3,
        "lsqr_atol" => 1e-6)

where lsqr_damp is $\lambda$ in the equation above. The implementation is iterative and lsqr_atol is a convergence tolerance at which to stop the alogrithm.


Rank-revealing QR factorisation determines a low rank solution to the linear system. Smaller "rrqr_tol" means less regularisation.

solver = Dict(
        "solver" => :rrqr,
        "rrqr_tol" => 1e-5)

Baysian Ridge Regression (BRR)

The :brr - Bayesian Ridge Regression - is a wrapper for scikit learn's BayseianRidge linear model see here. A Gaussian prior on the parameter vector, and a Gaussian likelihood function are used to copmute the maximum posterior probability parameter vector. Following this, the hyperparamters of the Gaussian priors are optimised by maximising the marginal log likelihood of the obsrevations.

solver = Dict(
        "solver" => :brr, 
        "brr_tol" => 1e-3)

Automatic Relevance Determination (ARD)

solver= Dict(
         "solver" => :ard,
         "ard_tol" => 1e-3,
         "ard_threshold_lambda" => 10000)

Automatic Relevance Determination performing evidence maximisation. ard_tol sets the convergence for the marginal log likelihood convergence, default is1e-3. ard_threshold_lambda is the threshold for removing the basis functions with low relevance, default is 10000.